Parenting Bulletin    
Recent News |  Archives |  Tags |  Newsletter |  Message Board/Forum |  About |  Links |  Subscribe to ParentingBulletin.com RSS Feed Subscribe


More Articles
Improvements in fuel cell designImprovements in fuel cell design

Rediscovering Venus to find faraway earths

Archaeologists discover bronze remains of Iron Age chariot

Researchers resolve the Karakoram glacier anomaly, a cold case of climate science

Fish tale: New study evaluates antibiotic content in farm-raised fishFish tale: New study evaluates antibiotic content in farm-raised fish

New 3-D display technology promises greater energy efficiencyNew 3-D display technology promises greater energy efficiency

Researchers break nano barrier to engineer the first protein microfiberResearchers break nano barrier to engineer the first protein microfiber

Magnetic mirrors enable new technologies by reflecting light in uncanny ways

Structure of an iron-transport protein revealedStructure of an iron-transport protein revealed

First step: From human cells to tissue-engineered esophagusFirst step: From human cells to tissue-engineered esophagus

Lift weights, improve your memory

Spiders: Survival of the fittest group

Autophagy helps fast track stem cell activationAutophagy helps fast track stem cell activation

Myelin vital for learning new practical skillsMyelin vital for learning new practical skills

More physical activity improved school performanceMore physical activity improved school performance

Around the world in 400,000 years: The journey of the red foxAround the world in 400,000 years: The journey of the red fox

Engineering new vehicle powertrainsEngineering new vehicle powertrains

Active aging is much more than exerciseActive aging is much more than exercise

Study: New device can slow, reverse heart failureStudy: New device can slow, reverse heart failure

Are the world's religions ready for ET?Are the world's religions ready for ET?

Gut bacteria, artificial sweeteners and glucose intoleranceGut bacteria, artificial sweeteners and glucose intolerance

Recreating the stripe patterns found in animals by engineering synthetic gene networksRecreating the stripe patterns found in animals by engineering synthetic gene networks

Laying the groundwork for data-driven scienceLaying the groundwork for data-driven science

Nature's designs inspire research into new light-based technologiesNature's designs inspire research into new light-based technologies

Missing piece found to help solve concussion puzzleMissing piece found to help solve concussion puzzle

Biologists delay the aging process by 'remote control'Biologists delay the aging process by 'remote control'

Geography matters: Model predicts how local 'shocks' influence U.S. economyGeography matters: Model predicts how local 'shocks' influence U.S. economy

Identified for the first time what kind of explosive has been used after the detonationIdentified for the first time what kind of explosive has been used after the detonation

Copied from nature: Detecting software errors via genetic algorithmsCopied from nature: Detecting software errors via genetic algorithms

Maternal stress during pregnancy may affect child's obesity (4/25/2011)

<
Tags:
pregnancy

There is increasing evidence from human and animal studies that offspring of parents who were physically or psychologically stressed are at higher risk of developing obesity, and that these offspring may in turn "transmit" that increased risk to the next generation. Now research conducted at the University of Minnesota and Georgetown University suggests that a mother's nutritional or psychological stress during pregnancy and lactation may create a signature on her child's genes that put the child at increased risk for obesity later in life, especially if the child is female.

Ruijun Han at the University of Minnesota Medical School's Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology will discuss the team's findings at the at the Experimental Biology meeting (EB 2011), being held April 9-13, 2011 at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC. The title of his presentation is "Stress-induced Epigenetic Programming for Adipogenesis: Role of Neuropeptide Y and Adipose Stem Cells."

Two-Tiered Research

The Minnesota team focused on the behavior of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a neurotransmitter found in the brain and autonomic nervous system that is associated with appetite stimulation and the storage of energy as fat. Building on prior research in the field, the team undertook two studies, one involving mice and the other involving mouse embryonic stem cells.

In the first study, the researchers sought to determine if prenatal and postnatal stress exerted long-term effects on the activation of NPY and its Y2 receptor (Y2R) that would result in the creation of fat cells and the promotion of obesity. First, they exposed pregnant mice to stress by feeding them a low-protein diet. The team found that this diet caused low birth weight in the offspring. Female offspring of the mice stressed during pregnancy and lactation grew faster after weaning when they were fed a high-fat diet, and within 2 months, they developed abdominal fat, prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance) and increased upregulation of Y2R in their fat tissue. Although male offspring of stressed mothers also had low birth weight, they did not develop obesity and they had lower Y2R expression and better metabolic health, even when fed a high-fat diet.

"This indicates that maternal stress during pregnancy and lactation could induce gender-specific abdominal obesity and impaired glucose metabolism associated with increased plasma NPY and fat Y2R," says Dr. Han.

Stress may affect NPY and Y2R in several ways, says Dr. Zofia Zukowska, professor of physiology and the senior researcher of the study. "It could be that the mother's poor nutrition or other type of stress can affect fetal development by depriving the fetus of necessary nutrients or exposing it to levels of stress hormones such as cortisol, norepinephrine and epinephrine [adrenaline], which in turn up-regulate the NPY-Y2R system to affect metabolism and fat growth of the offspring."

The team sought to tease out these effects in the second study by observing how mice embryonic stem cells behave when over-exposed to stress hormones at a critical point in their differentiation. Embryonic stem cells that have been treated with insulin and dexamathasone (synthetic glucocorticoid) will differentiate into fat cells. The team exposed such cells with epinephrine in a test dish and saw that the cells increased fat-cell formation and NPY expression. The cells also decreased DNA methylation in the NPY promoter region, through an epigenetic (non-genetic) process that alters expression of this peptide in cells so that the cells "remember" their type (i.e., stem cells will remain committed to fat cell lineage and give rise to fat cells, instead of becoming or giving rise to another kind of cell).

"All of this data suggests that stress may induce epigenetic changes in NPY and its receptor genes and program [the offspring's DNA] for the future development of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome," says Dr. Han.

Implications

Although mice are not people, the Minnesota team's research has implications for tackling human obesity because it sheds light on the process by which fat cell volume and the number of fat cells are derived, says Dr. Han. "Adipocyte number before adolescence is a major determinant [of a person's risk of obesity], so intervention during pregnancy and childhood might be an efficient way to prevent adult obesity."

Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Post Comments:

Search
New Articles
Certain parenting tactics could lead to materialistic attitudes in adulthoodCertain parenting tactics could lead to materialistic attitudes in adulthood

Even expectant dads experience prenatal hormone changes

A 2-minute delay in cutting the umbilical cord leads to a better development of newborns

Study finds low weight gain in pregnant women reduces male fetal survivalStudy finds low weight gain in pregnant women reduces male fetal survival

Prenatal exposure to common household chemicals linked with substantial drop in child IQ

Are you helping your toddler's aggressive behavior?

Punishing kids for lying just doesn't work

Higher birth weight indicates better performance in school

Are the benefits of breast milk stimulant worth the risk?

Many chest X-rays in children are unnecessaryMany chest X-rays in children are unnecessary

Why does physical activity during childhood matter?

Heavier newborns show academic edge in school

Why don't children belong to the clean plate club?Why don't children belong to the clean plate club?

New study examines the effect of timing of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy

Full-day preschool linked with increased school readiness compared with part-day



Archives
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010




Science Friends
Agricultural Science
Astronomy News
Biology News
Biomimicry Science
Cognitive Research
Chemistry News
Tissue Engineering
Cancer Research
Cybernetics Research
Electonics Research
Forensics Report
Fossil News
Genetic Archaeology
Genetics News
Geology News
Nanotech News
Microbiology Research
Physics News
  Archives |  Submit News |  Advertise With Us |  Contact Us |  Links
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. All contents © 2000 - 2019 ParentingBulletin.com. All rights reserved.